Scientific Collaboration

Health Outcomes

The AHS regularly links the cohort to State Vital Statistics and Cancer Registries to update mortality from all causes and cancer incidence. Other health endpoints are collected by self-report in periodic follow-up questionnaires. Specific health endpoints of interest are confirmed through additional participant contact, review of medical records, and, as required, clinical exam.

Table 2a: Post-enrollment (Incident only) Malignant Cancer Cases by Site and Data Collection Progress 1,2,3,4,5
Cancer Site Total with Cancer Completed Phase II Completed Phase III Returned Buccal Sample Returned DHQ
Bladder 507 357 259 266 234
Brain 138 72 30 53 52
Breast 1,369 1,074 886 818 759
Bronchus and Lung 1,124 640 317 386 363
Colon 921 625 408 437 389
Head and Neck 100 58 37 34 27
Kidney and Renal Pelvis 430 268 197 183 171
Leukemia 357 223 144 163 134
Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Ducts 91 52 27 21 30
Melanoma 564 412 283 255 256
Mesothelioma 27 11 8 6 5
Multiple Myeloma 183 124 69 87 79
NHL 545 363 264 303 227
Oral 233 168 121 111 112
Ovary 134 96 67 55 56
Pancreas 253 150 73 71 79
Prostate 3,153 2,210 1,700 1,825 1,344
Rectum and Rectosigmoid Junction 348 228 152 154 141
Stomach 144 92 60 62 59
Thyroid Gland 216 152 117 111 95
Uterine 339 258 220 144 166
Other 925 604 374 361 374
All 12,101 8,237 5,813 5,906 5,152

1 Cancer counts are based on nearly complete registry data through 2013 for Iowa cases and through 2012 for North Carolina cases.

2 Subjects previously diagnosed with cancer at a different site are included.

3 Buccal cell receipts represent progress through 2014.

4 The 'Other' category includes in-situ bladder cancers.

5 SEER Site Recode ICD-O-3 (1/27/2003) Definition used for classifying cancers.

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Table 2b: Pre- and Post-enrollment (Prevalent and Incident) Malignant Cancer Cases by Site and Data Collection progress 1,2,3,4,5
Cancer Site Total with Cancer Completed Phase II Completed Phase III Returned Buccal Sample Returned DHQ
Bladder 588 404 289 295 261
Brain 157 84 36 60 59
Breast 1,825 1,419 1,129 1,054 1,011
Bronchus and Lung 1,173 662 330 399 377
Colon 1,065 710 470 502 446
Head and Neck 118 68 44 41 34
Kidney and Renal Pelvis 469 292 216 199 184
Leukemia 412 257 162 184 158
Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Ducts 93 53 28 22 31
Melanoma 691 503 351 311 317
Mesothelioma 27 11 8 6 5
Multiple Myeloma 195 129 71 92 83
NHL 650 424 296 345 275
Oral 289 205 141 136 139
Ovary 184 133 89 83 82
Pancreas 264 153 73 71 80
Prostate 3,580 2,482 1,855 1,991 1,540
Rectum and Rectosigmoid Junction 433 280 190 193 179
Stomach 151 94 61 63 60
Thyroid Gland 312 229 182 162 147
Uterine 431 326 276 184 214
Other 1,101 720 456 430 447
All 14,208 9,638 6,753 6,823 6,129

1 Cancer counts are based on nearly complete registry data through 2013 for Iowa cases and through 2012 for North Carolina cases.

2 Subjects previously diagnosed with cancer at a different site are included.

3 Buccal cell receipts represent progress through 2014.

4 The 'Other' category includes in-situ bladder cancers.

5 SEER Site Recode ICD-O-3 (1/27/2003) Definition used for classifying cancers.

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Table 3: Cause Specific Mortality of AHS Cohort, 1994-2014
Cause Frequency Percent Cumulative Frequency Cumulative Percent
Accidents 621 5.13 621 5.13
Cancer 3,842 31.71 4,463 36.83
Cerebrovascular Disease 639 5.27 5,102 42.11
Diabetes Mellitus 276 2.28 5,378 44.38
Heart Disease 3,140 25.91 8,518 70.3
Respiratory Disease 958 7.91 9,476 78.2
Other 2,641 21.8 12,117 100

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Table 4: Medical Conditions asked about in Phase II 1
Private Applicators
N=52,394
Spouses
N=32,346
Commercial Applicators
N=4,916
Total
N=89,656
Completed Phase II Questionnaire 33,457 23,796 2,885 60,138
Cardiovascular Disease
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction) 1,789 370 122 2,281
Irregular Heart Beat (Arrhythmia) 3,267 2,571 243 6,081
High Blood Pressure or Hypertension 8,637 5,954 870 15,461
Endocrine Disorder
Diabetes or High Blood Sugar 2,429 1,314 188 3,931
Thyroid Disease or Thyroid Problems 1,075 2,947 90 4,112
Overactive Thyroid (Hyperthyroidism) 279 659 N/A 4 938
Graves Disease 62 151 N/A 4 213
Underactive Thyroid (Hypothyroidism) 528 1,792 55 2,375
Thyroiditis, Hashimoto's Disease, Autoimmune Disease 31 212 N/A 4 243
Enlarged Thyroid, Thyroid Nodules, Goiter 204 997 N/A 4 1,201
Other Thyroid Problem 113 169 N/A 4 282
Women's Health Disorder
Endometriosis N/A 2 1,694 N/A 2 1,694
Uterine Fibroids N/A 2 3,514 N/A 2 3,514
Benign Breast Disease (Fibroids, Cysts, Other) N/A 2 4,060 N/A 2 4,060
Pregnancy Induced High Blood Pressure,
Pre-Eclampsia, Toxemia or Eclampsia
N/A 2 103 N/A 2 103
Gestational Diabetes N/A 2 77 N/A 2 77
Autoimmune/Musculoskeletal Disorders
Rheumotoid Arthritis N/A 2 908 N/A 2 908
Lupus (SLE) N/A 2 110 N/A 2 110
Sjogren's Disease N/A 2 43 N/A 2 43
Scleroderma or Systemic Sclerosis N/A 2 32 N/A 2 32
Kidney Disorder
Kidney Stones 3,862 1,279 200 5,341
Kidney Disease or Kidney Failure 354 214 28 596
Digestive Disorder
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
(Chron's Disease, Ulcerative Colitis)
430 514 41 985
Skin Disorder
Vitiligo 130 84 N/A 4 214
Eczema 719 1,124 89 1,932
Psoriasis 821 582 76 1,479
Allergy to Bees, Wasps, or Other Insects 1,735 1,120 158 3,013
Optical or Hearing Disorder
Blindness 619 271 36 926
Nearsightedness 12,237 13,244 1,345 26,826
Farsightedness 13,683 11,673 1,217 26,573
Cataracts 3,427 2,965 199 6,591
Glaucoma 680 492 49 1,221
Detached Retina 358 179 30 567
Retinal or Macular Degeneration 391 368 34 793
Hearing Problems 11,781 N/A 3 913 12,694
Injury
Head Injury 6,623 1,556 726 8,905
Neck, Back, Spinal Cord Injury 6,250 2,198 588 9,036
Post-Polio Syndrome, Leg Injury 4,344 1,474 188 6,006
Neurologic Disorder
Epilepsy 123 127 N/A 4 250
Multiple Sclerosis 39 83 N/A 4 122
Parkinson's Disease 89 29 N/A 4 118
Tremor (Essential, Familial, Benign) 144 113 N/A 4 257

1 Numbers represent medical conditions reported during Phase II interviews. Because the asking of some questions was dependent on responses to earlier questions, the counts in this table reflect the numbers of each condition reported but not the total occurrence of the diseases in the cohort.

2 These conditions marked with N/A were not asked about in the men's health questions. Since 96 percent of private applicators and commercial applicators in the cohort are men, it would be misleading to report counts for these conditions in the private applicator column.

3 Hearing problems were not asked about in the women's health questions. Since 99.5 percent of spouses in the cohort are women, it would be misleading to report hearing problem counts in the spouse column.

4 These conditions occur in commercial applicators in insufficient numbers to be reported at this time.

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